Black Hole Mass In Space

The gravity of a Black Hole cannot act at a distance because nothing escapes from the event horizon (notwithstanding Hawking Radiation). Therefore a mass is not the origin of “gravitational attraction”. The vector orientation of the displacement delta (the position,velocity,acceleration, and direction) of a mass affected by gravity are discussed in the research paper “A Focus On Gravity” (see below). The conclusion of the hypothesis is that the expansion of space causes the effect known as gravity and is repulsive in nature relative to space!

Last edited by admin on February 17 2020 at 9:30 am

The following excerpts are from:

The accelerating Universe:

Nobel Laureate Brian Schmidt

Gravity 10

Gravity 20

Gravity 30

Gravity 40

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A Focus On Gravity ©

A quote by Sir Isaac Newton:

“Gravity must be caused by an Agent acting constantly according to certain laws, but whether this Agent be material or immaterial I have left to the consideration of my readers.”

Isaac Newton

A compilation of previous posts from

29 November 2011, 7 November 2014, and 26 November 2014

(which are included near the footer) with edited material added to the compilation:

Mainstream science maintains that gravity is the result of the warping of the geometry of space surrounding a three dimensional mass. This is called the gravitational field. Exploration of the nature of gravity and the direction in which the vector orientation of the displacement delta of gravity exerts it’s effects should be focused on the geometry of space not the mass itself. The phenomenon providing the displacement delta for gravity is in the geometry of space, not in the mass. The arrow depicting the vector orientation of the displacement delta of the position,velocity, acceleration, and direction of a mass affected by gravity from the origin to the point has to be oriented in the direction FROM the warped space (origin) TOWARD the mass (point) because that is the direction of the displacement delta. The 180° change in the direction of the vector orientation of the displacement delta of gravity from an attractive displacement delta to a repulsive displacement delta is a discrete global symmetry. At the surface of the Earth the source of the displacement delta due to gravity is from space (in the warped space or gravitational field) which means that it has to be a displacement delta pushing down from above. If the displacement delta was a pulling force, of which the displacement delta is in the warped space, objects would be pulled upward!

Space exists not only in space but at the surface of the earth and space also exists within the earth among the electrons, protons, and neutrons of atoms. This is true of any material object in existence. Gravity or expanding space affects every single sub-atomic particle in matter and in turn is affected by every single sub-atomic particle in matter. Each sub-atomic particle produces, in addition to the electromagnetic and nuclear forces, a slight gravitational warping of space surrounding it. The warped space then expands outward in all directions.

Space does not expand out of a “black hole” so that the interior is subjected to the crushing force of expanding space from all directions with no counteracting expansion neither from the interior nor from the other “side” (“side” being spherical).

Gravity as a pushing displacement delta is more plausible than as a pulling displacement delta. Looking at the possible sources of gravity one finds two possibilities:

1) That there is a displacement delta emanating from 3D objects which pulls 3D objects toward each other.

2) That there is a displacement delta embedded in the warped space surrounding a mass which pushes another mass towards it. In effect both masses are pushed toward each other.

Considering the latter, the repelling displacement delta of gravity is present everywhere from every direction so that a single object in space which is not near any other object is held in the non-warped geometry of space and is seen to simply be floating in space (comments on moving matter below). The repelling displacement (gravity) is equal in all directions as long as there is no other object nearby. When another object is nearby there is an imbalance in the geometry of space (warped space). The imbalance is a result of “absorption” of some of the energy of the repelling gravitational displacement by the matter of the objects. Not all of the repelling gravitational energy is “absorbed” and passes through the objects exiting the other “side” creating a counteracting gravitational “shadow” (warped space). The amount of “absorption” is proportional and depends on the mass of the objects producing the equivalence principal of gravity. A three dimensional spherical gravitational “shadow” of the repelling displacement surrounds both objects in all directions (warped space). In a line connecting the two objects there is less repulsion on the inside between the two objects than on the outside since they are in each others gravitational “shadows”. The two objects are pushed toward each other. The 180° change in the direction of the vector orientation of the displacement delta of gravity from an attractive displacement to a repulsive displacement is a discrete global symmetry which changes neither the equations nor the calculations which are already well established.

Displacement J produced from time t1 to t2 is defined to be

{\displaystyle \mathbf {J} =\int _{t_{1}}^{t_{2}}\mathbf {F} \,\mathrm {d} t}

where F is the resultant displacement applied from t1 to t2.

  • F is the displacement acting on the masses;

  • G is the gravitational constant (6.674×10−11 N · (m/kg)2);

  • m1 is the first mass;

  • m2 is the second mass;

  • r is the distance between the centers of the masses.

Matter is obviously physically connected to gravity and therefore physically connected to space.

Matter exists in the dynamically expanding environment of space. Space is not a static environment. The expansion of space is isotropic and occurs from every point in empty space (tensor field). It becomes an-isotropic (warped space) in the area of space where matter exists. This an-isotropic condition of expanding space surrounding all matter (gravitational field) causes the effect known as gravity.

The expansion of space causes the effect known as gravity! Gravitational acceleration occurs as two objects approach each other. They “see” less and less of the pushing displacement from the outside which is not between them because of the angle between the horizons of both objects as well as the fact that there is less and less space expanding between them. The effect is that of a deepening spherical gravitational umbra (warped space).

The Multiverse

Every point in space is at the center of it’s own universe and is isotropic.

Tensor Field

Imagine a stick figure representation of space using rays in space emanating from a point in every direction spherically. Now imagine rays emanating in every direction spherically from another nearby point in space . The ray lines which are between the two points will crisscross. Now imagine this happening at every point in space with lines emanating spherically from every point in space. Now we have an unimaginably complex geometry of spacetime. Spacetime is expanding from every point in space so that there is a dynamic delta in the geometry of spacetime.

The still image below illustrating the single body warp-age of spacetime has to be viewed with the concept in mind that this still image depicts the motion, from left to right, of an object (not seen) at the center of the “doughnut”. The larger area at the “rear” depicts the stronger gravitational displacement. The lesser displacement area at the “front” of the moving object is overcome by the stronger displacement at the “rear”. The “change” is occurring in the expansion of spacetime. When the initial displacement giving an object acceleration is removed the object then “coasts” on the warp-age momentum of expanding spacetime.

The center of the single body warp-age (doughnut) is where the warp field umbra of any object (elementary particle, sub-atomic particle, atom, micro-meteoroid, ship, asteroid, planet etc.) interacts with the dynamically expanding motion of spacetime. The size of the object’s warp field umbra is proportional to the size of the object. In the image, the grid lines of both the spacetime and the warp field umbra are not static but are expanding in three dimensions from every point in space. The warp field umbra (doughnut) created by the object is moving with the object. In this process mass plays a “catalytic” role and is not the origin of gravitation.

As a 3D object exists in space it causes the space surrounding it to become an-isotropic. This an-isotropic, or warped space, surrounding 3D objects is commonly called gravity. Warped space should not be confused with the dynamics of spacetime within which warped space acts. In the analogy of the trampoline and bowling ball, the trampoline is spacetime and the depression in the fabric near the bowling ball is warped space. Gravity is not a pulling displacement. Gravity is a pushing displacement! This 180° change is a discrete global symmetry. Matter “absorbs” the gravitational energy from the expanding space in the universe and creates a gravitational “shadow” surrounding the mass spherically in all directions. The pushing displacement of gravitational energy is not completely “absorbed” by matter. The proportional variability of “absorption” explains the variability of gravity or the equivalence principal with respect to varying masses. The greater the mass the greater the “absorption” and the lesser the mass the lesser the “absorption”. The gravitational energy which is not “absorbed” passes through the mass and partially counteracts the pushing displacement coming from the other direction. Two objects in the vicinity of each other, each having a gravitational “shadow”, are pushed toward each other. As they approach each other the gravitational “shadows” intensify and the result is increasing gravitational acceleration. An object in free space not close to another object receives an equal amount of gravitational energy from all directions and therefore stays suspended in space and obeys all of Newton’s laws of motion as well as Einstein’s concept of spacetime. The 180° change in the direction of the vector orientation of the displacement delta of gravity is a discrete global symmetry. It is much more logical to assume that gravity originates from the limitless depths of the universe than to try to imagine some force emanating from matter which pulls other matter towards it.

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Richard Feynman comments on the fundamental nature of gravity. This is a 4 minute 56 second clip taken out of lecture 2

The link below is the complete lecture including the above clip from time stamp 00:06:30 which shows Richard Feynman commenting on the fundamental nature of gravity.

Lecture 2 – The Relation of Mathematics to Physics | The Character of Physical Law | Richard Feynman

The entire set of 7 Messenger Lectures on “The Character of Physical Law,” originally delivered at Cornell University Nov. 9-19, 1964 by Richard Feynman is available at:

Richard Feynam Messenger Lectures

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This 77 second video clip is contained in the complete MIT lecture video below.

The following video is the complete MIT lecture containing the 77 second video clip above which is located at time stamp 00:06:20 minutes.

video credit: MIT on-line lectures 8.01x – Lect 5 – Circular Motion, Centripetal Forces, Perceived Gravity

Gravity is considered to be a “weak” force compared to the other forces of nature. I beg to differ. Gravity only seams to be weak because matter extracts energy for the displacement delta proportional to the mass of the object (equivalence principal). Witness the mass of elementary particles! The crushing gravitational force in a black hole exhibits the true force of gravity.

Gravity as a repelling displacement delta explains the voids and alignment of galaxies in the macroscopic universe.

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Gravity & Electromagnetism UNIFIED

I hypothesize that gravity and electromagnetism are a unified system with EM waves being carried forward along with the expansion of spacetime (gravity) at the speed of light.

The 49 second video clip of a computer simulation below illustrates that the expansion of the geometry of spacetime (gravity) carries forward the propagation of electromagnetic waves.

The video below is the complete lecture which includes the video clip above at time stamp 00:16:15 minutes which shows a computer simulation of EM wave propagation.

My hypothesis adds to the lecture in that the seemingly static structure depicted when the charge stops is actually gravity, in other words the expansion of spacetime

video credit: MIT on-line lectures 8.02x – Lect 28 – Poynting Vector, Oscillating Charges, Polarization, Radiation Pressure

Gravity & The Expansion Of

Space © (18 June 2015)

Gravity & The Expansion Of Space-Time

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Below are the original posts contained in the compilation above.

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A Focus On Gravity © (November 26, 2014)

The Arrow Depicting The Direction Of The Force Of Gravity Points Down…

From Space To The Earth.

Mainstream science maintains that gravity is the result of the warping of the fabric of space surrounding a three dimensional mass. This is called the gravitational field. Exploration of the nature of gravity and the direction in which the force of gravity exerts it’s effects should be focused on the fabric of space not the mass itself. The force providing the delta for gravity is in the fabric of space, not in the mass. The arrow depicting the direction of the force of gravity from the origin to the point has to be oriented in the direction from the warped space (origin) toward the mass (point) because that is the direction of movement. At the surface of the Earth the source of the force of gravity is from space (in the warped space or gravitational field) which means that it has to be a force pushing down from above. If the force was a pulling force, of which the delta is in the warped space, objects would be pulled upward!

(credit: Pierre J. Hébert/Blogger)

 

Gravity: Pull or Push? (November 7, 2014)

Gravity as a pushing force is more plausible than as a pulling force. Looking at the possible sources of gravity one finds two possibilities: 1) That there is a force emanating from 3D objects which pulls 3D objects toward each other. 2) That there is a force emanating from deep in space which repels 3D matter. Considering the latter, the repelling force of gravity is present everywhere from every direction so that a single object in space which is not near any other object is held in the fabric of space and is seen to simply be floating in space. The repelling force (gravity) is equal in all directions as long as there is no other object nearby. When another object is nearby there is an imbalance in the fabric of space (warped space). The imbalance is a result of “absorption” of some of the energy of the repelling gravitational force by the matter of the objects. Not all of the repelling gravitational energy is “absorbed” and passes through the objects exiting the other “side” creating a counteracting gravitational “shadow” (warped space). The amount of “absorption” depends on the mass of the objects and therefore the amount of gravity. A three dimensional spherical gravitational “shadow” of the repelling force surrounds both objects in all directions (warped space). In a line connecting the two objects there is less repulsion on the inside between the two objects than on the outside since they are in each others gravitational “shadows” so that the two objects are pushed toward each other. Gravitational acceleration occurs as the two objects approach each other they “see” less and less of the pushing force from the outside or other side which is not between them because of the angle between the horizons of both objects. The effect is that of a deepening spherical gravitational umbra (warped space) resulting from the increasing angularity.

(credit: Pierre J. Hébert/Blogger)

 

 

The Fabric of Space and The Nature of Gravity © (November 29, 2011)

A Hypothesis: The Fabric of Space:

Every point in space is at the center of it’s own universe in isotropy. Imagine a stick figure representation of space using rays in space emanating from a point in every direction spherically. Now imagine rays emanating in every direction spherically from another nearby point in space . The ray lines which are between the two points will crisscross. Now imagine this happening at every point in space with lines emanating spherically from every point in space. Now we have an unimaginably complex fabric of space. Space is expanding from every point in space so that there is a dynamic delta in the fabric of space. As a 3D object moves through this fabric the effect in the direction of travel has the object both increase and decrease in size relative to the surrounding space as it moves from point to point (the diverging and converging lines emanating from every point in space). As the object moves through space it is moving from one universe to the next as it passes each point in space with each point being at the center of it’s own universe. This could be referred to as the multiverse.
As a 3D object exists in space it causes anisotropy in the isotropy of space. This anisotropy, or warped space, surrounding 3D objects is commonly called gravity.

(credit: Pierre J. Hébert/Blogger)

A Hypothesis: The Nature of Gravity:

Gravity is not a pulling force. Gravity is a pushing force! The 180° change in the direction of the force of gravity from an attractive force to a repulsive force is a symmetry. Matter “absorbs” the gravitational energy from the universe and creates a gravitational “shadow” in three dimensions. The pushing force of gravitational energy is not completely “absorbed” by matter except possibly in the case of Black Holes.The variability of “absorption” can explain the variability of gravity with respect to varying masses. The greater the mass the greater the “absorption” and the lesser the mass the lesser the “absorption”. The gravitational energy which is not “absorbed” passes through the mass and partially counteracts the pushing force coming from the other direction. Two objects in the vicinity of each other, each having a gravitational “shadow”, are pushed toward each other. As they approach each other the gravitational “shadows” intensify and the result is increasing gravitational acceleration. An object in free space not close to another object receives an equal amount of gravitational energy from all directions and therefore stays suspended in space and obeys all of Newton’s laws of motion. It is much more logical to assume that the force of gravity originates from the limitless depths of the universe than to try to imagine some force emanating from matter which pulls other matter towards it. Gravity as a repelling force explains the voids and alignment of galaxies in the macroscopic universe.

(credit: Pierre J. Hébert/Blogger)